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The diameter of wires is measured by a standard reference number referred to as the American Wire Gauge (AWG). Figure 4-4 lists some gauge values and the equivalent diameter. From the diameter and assuming copper wire, we can estimate the resistance per length. For example, 22-gauge wire, typical in many personal computer boxes, has a […]

Signal integrity Issue

As clock frequency increase identifying and solving signal integrity problem become critical . the successful companies will be those that master signal integrity problem  an implement a sufficient design process to eliminate this problem it is incorporating new design rule and new technology and new analysis tool that higher performance design can be implemented and […]

Annular Ring

The difference between the drill diameter and the corresponding circuitry pad diameter as measured as Annular Ring


Preferred Pad Construction for Class 2 – 0.15/0.15 Surface Mount Technology Recommendations for one trace through 1mm BGA pads are as follows: • Via Pad diameter 0.55mm • Hole callout 0.25mm + 0/-0.25mm • Plane anti-pad 0.75mm • Trace width 0.15mm/Space width 0.15mm • These designs require 0.5‡ ounce outer layer copper foil construction for […]

PCB Design Technique

Define Your Process See the Schematics design which you receive from hardware Place and rotate all the component See the Power placement and controller placement Decap Placement , oscillator placement Reference Ground , Reference Power Plane Trace Verses Current , voltage verses Plane For more detail Read Next Post Read more

How T o Do PCB trace Calculation

Below are some tools you can see .. https://www.4pcb.com/trace-width-calculator.html https://www.7pcb.com/trace-width-calculator.php https://www.eeweb.com/tools/external-pcb-trace-max-current


dxf to Board out line move to top and assign same nate connect with rute air wire


   A “part” is a mapping between a “symbol” (which represents the connectivity within a schematic) and a “cell” (which is the device footprint on a printed circuit board)