SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) is a generic name for various kinds of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that are synchronized with the clock speed that the microprocessor is optimized for. This tends to increase the number of instructions that the processor can perform in a given time. The speed of SDRAM is rated in MHz rather than in nanoseconds (ns). […]

BIT rate

Bit Rate – In telecommunications, computing and digital communications, bit rate is the number of bits (1/0) that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. The bit rate is quantified using the bits per second (symbol: “bit/s”), often in conjunction with an SI prefix such as” kilo” (1 kbit/s = 1000 bit/s), “mega” (1 […]

EYE Diagram

Eye Diagram – An eye diagram is used in electrical engineering to get a good idea of signal quality in the digital domain. To generate a waveform analogous to an eye diagram, we can apply infinite persistence to various analog signals a well as to quasi-digital signals such as square wave and pulse as synthesized […]


SAE develops and maintains standards mainly for use in North America vehicle (SAE J551-xx) and component (SAE J1113-xx). 2004/104/EC, which surpassed 95/54 EC, is a European directive for vehicle EMC automotive components follow the directions given in the CISPR 25 document. CISPR 12 deals with “radio disturbance characteristics for the protection of off-board receivers CISPR […]

Layer selection

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here you can select the layer at once or individual similar you can select the relevant things in that layer

Eagle -Copper shape

First make shape then start routing other wise it will take same net name ..dont change shape name in last .

Eagle Tool related Issue

Q. while Doing copper shape you will face the issue auto shape . Answer : set the grid , set the space isolate should be zero .